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Introduction To HTML

Untitled Document

Elements

HTML Elements

An HTML element is everything from the start tag to the end tag:

Start tag * Element content End tag *
<p> This is a paragraph </p>
<a href="default.htm" > This is a link </a>
<br />    

* The start tag is often called the opening tag. The end tag is often called the closing tag.


Syntax of HTML Elements:

  • An HTML element starts with a start tag / opening tag
  • An HTML element ends with an end tag / closing tag
  • The element content is everything between the start and the end tag
  • Some HTML elements have empty content
  • Empty elements are closed in the start tag
  • Most HTML elements can have attributes

 

 

Nested HTML Elements

<html> has two nested elements: <head> and <body>. You can call them both children of <html>. <body> is nested within the <html> element thus is the “child” of <html>. <head> is also nested within the <html> element is is also a “child” of <html>.

So, both the <head> and <body> elements are the children of <html> i.e., siblings. and <html> is their parent.<title> is nested within the <head> element and is therefore the child of <head> and the grandchild of <html>. <p> is nested within the <body> element, therefore the child of <body> and grand child of <html>. <q> is nested within the <p> element, therefore the child of <p> grandchild of <body> and great grand child of <html>.

HTML Document Example

<html>
<body>

<p>This is my html code.</p>

</body>

</html>

The example above contains 3 HTML elements.

Example Explaination:

The <p> element:

<p>This is my first html code.</p>

The <p> element defines a paragraph in the HTML document.
The element has a start tag <p> and an end tag </p>.
The element content is: This is my first html code.

The <body> element:

<body>


<p>This is my first html code.</p>


</body>

The <body> element defines the body of the HTML document.
The element has a start tag <body> and an end tag </body>.
The element content is another HTML element (a p element).

The <html> element:

<html>

<body>
<p>This is my first html code.</p>
</body>

</html>

The <html> element defines the whole HTML document.
The element has a start tag <html> and an end tag </html>.
The element content is another HTML element (the body element).

Empty HTML Elements

HTML elements with no content are called empty elements. Empty elements can be closed in the start tag. <br> is an empty element without a closing tag (the <br> tag defines a line break).In XHTML, XML, and future versions of HTML, all elements must be closed.

Adding a slash to the start tag, like <br />, is the proper way of closing empty elements, accepted by HTML, XHTML and XML. Even if <br> works in all browsers, writing <br /> instead is more future proof.


Tip:

Use Lowercase Tags

HTML tags are not case sensitive: <P> means the same as <p>. Many web sites use uppercase HTML tags.

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